2) Cavity formation: while step #1 occurs the cartilage in the center of the model begins to ossify (form into bone). What causes Heterotopic Ossification (HO)? Learn about the process of bone formation. There are two types of ossification. HO only occurs … Aging of the Skeletal System: Osteopenia: Inadequate ossification Chapter 6: Skeletal System Influencing Factors: 1) sex hormones 2) Calcium deficiency 3) Vitamin D deficiency 4) Inactivity Osteoporosis: Porous & fragile bone (spongy bone) Marieb & Hoehn – Figure 6.16 • Normal aging process (decreased osteoblast activity) We know that many different things affect aging: genetics, diet, exercise, illness, and a host of other factors, all of which contribute to the aging process. Heterotopic Ossification (HO) is the abnormal growth of bone in the non-skeletal tissues including muscle, tendons or other soft tissue. This centered cartilage is called the primary ossification center. Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva is a genetic disorder that affects the muscular and connective tissues in the human body. Bone formation, process by which new bone is produced. Ossification begins earlier with males a. The condition of inadequate ossification that may accompany aging and is a result of reduced calcification is called osteopenia A fracture of the distal end of the radius is a_____ fracture. Remember that these condensed fibers are called the osteoid. The end result of this is the formation of a bony collar on the outside of the cartilage. Largest concentration of ossification occurs in the zones near where muscles are inserted 4. Ossification then moves to the anterior border b. It is responsible for body movements that then transform the connective tissue into bone, called ossification. ectopic ossification a pathological condition in which bone arises in tissues not in the osseous system and in connective tissues usually not manifesting osteogenic properties. When HO develops, new bone grows at three times the normal rate, resulting in jagged, painful joints. Osteoclasts are cells that function in the developing fetus to absorb cartilage as ossification occurs and in adult bone to break down and remove spent bone tissue. Bones grow through the cellular activities of osteoblasts on the surface of the bone, which produce layers of mature bone cells called osteocytes. Being familiar with the order of ossification of the elbow is important in not mistaking an epicondylar fracture for a normal ossification center.. When ossification occurs, malformation of a bone in the external area of the skeleton will take place. Secondary ossification occurs after birth and forms the epiphyses of long bones and the extremities of irregular and flat bones. Ossification begins about the third month of fetal life in humans and is completed by late adolescence. After initial bone development, bones are remodeled throughout life to regulate calcium homeostasis and repair micro-damaged bones (from everyday stress ), as well as to shape the skeleton during growth. Appearance Order. ii. Elbow ossification occurs at the six elbow ossification centers in a reproducible order. After birth, this same sequence of events (matrix mineralization, death of chondrocytes, invasion of blood vessels from the periosteum, and seeding with osteogenic cells that become osteoblasts) occurs in the epiphyseal regions, and each of these centers of activity is referred to as a secondary ossification … Ossification (or osteogenesis) in bone remodeling is the process of laying down new bone material by cells called osteoblasts.It is synonymous with bone tissue formation. Males begin around age 30 b. Females begin around age 40 i. Ossification elements always present in larynges, but the degree increases with age 1. 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